[This is a third assignment from a previous semester. As with the second essay reproduced here on Ignore This, this assignment is but lightly edited, and it maintains its in-text citations and bibliography. In this case, the purpose for keeping these components is to maintain the overall character of the assignment (a practical proposal addressed to Senator Ron Wyden (D-Oregon) that, who knows, maybe I'll actually submit to the man sometime in the future).]
Fortunately for that inertial part of me which is loath to go to the trouble of organizing the relevant data and arguments, Cambridge PhD candidates Vincent Harinam and Rob Henderson have done yeoman's work in this area already.
Note that the essential definition has everything to do with a perception of others that agglomerates them on the basis of shallow characteristics over which they have no control or choice.